Tuesday, May 18, 2010

Linux File Structure

Linux File Structure

  • root - The home directory for the root user
  • home - Contains the user's home directories
  • bin - Commands needed during bootup that might be needed by normal users
  • sbin - Like bin but commands are not intended for normal users. Commands run by LINUX.
  • proc - This filesystem is not on a disk. It is a virtual filesystem that exists in the kernels imagination which is memory.

    • 1 - A directory with info about process number 1. Each process has a directory below proc.
  • usr - Contains all commands, libraries, man pages, games and static files for normal operation.

    • bin - Almost all user commands. some commands are in /bin or /usr/local/bin.
    • sbin - System admin commands not needed on the root filesystem. e.g., most server programs.
    • include - Header files for the C programming language. Should be below /user/lib for consistency.
    • lib - Unchanging data files for programs and subsystems
    • local - The place for locally installed software and other files.
    • man - Manual pages
    • info - Info documents
    • doc - Documentation
    • X11 - The X windows system files.
  • boot - Files used by the bootstrap loader, LILO. Kernel images are often kept here.
  • lib - Shared libraries needed by the programs on the root filesystem

    • modules - Loadable kernel modules, especially those needed to boot the system after disasters.
  • dev - Device files
  • etc - Configuration files specific to the machine.

    • skel - When a home directory is created it is initialized with files from this directory
    • sysconfig - Files that configure the linux system for devices.
  • var - Contains files that change for mail, news, printers log files, man pages, temp files

    • lib - Files that change while the system is running normally
    • local - Variable data for programs installed in /usr/local.
    • lock - Lock files. Used by a program to indicate it is using a particular device or file
    • log - Log files from programs such as login and syslog which logs all logins and logouts.
    • run - Files that contain information about the system that is valid until the system is next booted
    • spool - Directories for mail, printer spools, news and other spooled work.
    • tmp - Temporary files that are large or need to exist for longer than they should in /tmp.
  • mnt - Mount points for temporary mounts by the system administrator.
  • tmp - Temporary files.

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